This volume is devoted to interactive and iterative processes of decision-making- I 2 Fuzzy Decision Making, in brief. Decision-making is inherently interactive. Fuzzy sets help realize human-machine communication in an efficient way by facilitating a two-way interaction in a friendly and transparent manner. Human-centric interaction is of paramount relevance as a leading guiding design principle of decision support systems.The volume provides the reader with an updated and in-depth material on the conceptually appealing and practically sound methodology and practice of I 2 Fuzzy Decision Making. The book engages a wealth of methods of fuzzy sets and Granular Computing, brings new concepts, architectures and practice of fuzzy decision-making providing the reader with various application studies.The book is aimed at a broad audience of researchers and practitioners in numerous disciplines in which decision-making processes play a pivotal role and serve as a vehicle to produce solutions to existing problems. Those involved in operations research, management, various branches of engineering, social sciences, logistics, and economics will benefit from the exposure to the subject matter. The book may serve as a useful and timely reference material for graduate students and senior undergraduate students in courses on decision-making, Computational Intelligence, operations research, pattern recognition, risk management, and knowledge-based systems.
This book presents recent advancements of research, new methods and techniques, applications and projects in decision making and decision support systems. It explores expert systems and neural networks, knowledge engineering and management, fuzzy sets and systems and computational methods for optimization, data analysis and decision making. It presents applications in Economics, Finance, Management and Engineering. The book undertakes to stimulate scientific exchange, ideas and experiences in the field of decision making in Economy and Management. Researchers and practitioners alike will benefit from this book, when they are dealing with imprecision, vagueness and uncertainty in the context of decision making.
Decision making plays a key role in our daily activities as it is a critical involvement of relationship between parents and children, teachers and students, leaders and subordinates. The decision making is the process of making the best choice among possible alternatives in order to taking an action for achievement of the expected point. There are a lot of different decision making models and styles as distinct as people's idea and attitudes: for instance, some people who attempt to influence over the subordinates to accomplish the task apply autocratic decision making styles whereas some who intend to emphasis on the interest and needs of subordinates practice mostly the consultative and group decision making style. Despite of different kinds of decision making style contribution, the researcher studied only three decision making styles such as - autocratic styles, consultative style and group style as modeled by Vroom and Yetton. Actually decision making is solid, perpetual process and critical important to be aware of strength and weakness of decision making style as well.
In a context where schools are held more and more accountable for the education they provide, data-based decision making has become increasingly important. This book brings together scholars from several countries to examine data-based decision making. Data-based decision making in this book refers to making decisions based on a broad range of evidence, such as scores on students' assessments, classroom observations etc.This book supports policy-makers, people working with schools, researchers and school leaders and teachers in the use of data, by bringing together the current research conducted on data use across multiple countries into a single volume. Some of these studies are 'best practice' studies, where effective data use has led to improvements in student learning. Others provide insight into challenges in both policy and practice environments. Each of them draws on research and literature in the field.
This text provides a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of the major issues specific to the surgical decision-making process. These include patient's anatomy and pathophysiology as well as the magnitude of the injury at hand, the surgeon's own physiologic and mental status, training and experience, and many other factors such as creativity, leadership skills, and overall "biochemistry" of the environment. The text reviews theoretical as well as objective information that surgeons use to make intraoperative decisions in situations, often with very limited data, decisions that will decide between a patient's living or dying, such as in trauma surgery and other complex surgeries. How surgeons choose one technical approach over another in these situations is covered. This book fills a critical need for resource materials on these topics and includes both theoretical as well as practical presentations of many typical patients seen in operating rooms around the world. Surgical Decision Making: Beyond the Evidence Based Surgery is written by academic and clinical practicing surgeons that face intraoperative decision situations on a daily basis and therefore provides a unique and valuable resource in the field for surgeons currently in training and for those already in clinical or research practice.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision making process that not only seeks the agreement of most participants, but also the resolution or mitigation of minority objections. Consensus is usually defined as meaning both general agreement and the process of getting to such agreement. Consensus decision making is thus concerned primarily with that process. While not as common as other decision-making procedures, such as the parliamentary procedure explained in Robert's Rules of Order, consensus is used by a wide variety of groups, from the theological such as the Quakers, to economic including the Dutch Polder Model, to historical like the Hanseatic League, to political such as Food Not Bombs and various infoshops, to many non-governmental organizations, some online projects, and even entire nations such as the Haudenosaunee.
Political and economic institutions are typically governed by committees that face the challenge to reconcile the preferences of their members. How should decision rules be designed to generate fair and sustainable agreements, for example if committee members represent groups of different sizes? This book uses game-theoretic concepts and models to address the issue of political decision-making processes. In addition to providing a survey on basic game-theoretic tools in the analysis of political decisions, the author looks at specific issues such as two-tiered voting systems or the influence of lobbyists on legislative committees, and shows how the models can be applied to real-world contexts such as the EU decision-making institutions.
The volume delivers a wealth of effective methods to deal with various types of uncertainty inherently existing in human-centric decision problems. It elaborates on comprehensive decision frameworks to handle different decision scenarios, which help use effectively the explicit and tacit knowledge and intuition, model perceptions and preferences in a more human-oriented style.The book presents original approaches and delivers new results on fundamentals and applications related to human-centered decision making approaches to business, economics and social systems. Individual chapters cover multi-criteria (multiattribute) decision making, decision making with prospect theory, decision making with incomplete probabilistic information, granular models of decision making and decision making realized with the use of non-additive measures. New emerging decision theories being presented as along with a wide spectrum of ongoing research make the book valuable to all interested in the field of advanced decision-making. The volume, self-contained in its nature, offers a systematic exposure to the concepts, design methodologies, and detailed algorithms. A prudent balance between the theoretical studies and applications makes the material suitable for researchers and graduate students in information, computer sciences, psychology, cognitive science, economics, system engineering, operation research and management science, risk management, public and social policy.
Strategic Decision Making is a fundamental skill that all leaders need to master. But when the business environment is undergoing such rapid change it creates a perfect storm of uncertainty ambiguity and confusion for all decision makers. Coupled with a welter of data and opinions that bombard leaders constantly and exacerbated by organizations' limitations to coping with a rapidly developing external environment, how is it possible to form coherent, sound and well-crafted strategic decisions?In Strategic Decision Making, Simon Haslam and Ben Shenoy demonstrate a new model showing how leaders and managers can improve their strategic decisions in this volatile and uncertain climate. Their practical method adopts a simultaneous and integrated approach through exploration and experimentation in four phases. Each phase is explained in detail with practical recommendations.Strategic Decision Making delivers a well-rounded, practical and in-depth view of the topic whilst capitalizing on the latest thinking, encouraging the reader to make well-informed decisions even during turbulent times.
Recent research on joint or dyadic decision making has received renewed attention from behavioral scientists. This interest is due mostly to the advances in analytic and conceptual models used to study interaction processes. A number of related disciplines have used distinctive paradigms to study the same focal problem: namely, the processes by which two people interact, come to resolve a problem and, finally, reach a decision. Dyadic Decision Making presents in a single, integrated volume the conceptual and analytic strategies developed in communications research, marketing, psychology and sociology to investigate joint decision making.
This book is designed to support you in making difficult decisions in a more - tional way. Based on an established theoretical foundation, it shows that simple requirements concerning rational behavior lead to a general calculus of determ- ing optimal decision alternatives, the book then goes on to present methods and instruments useful for the practical implementation of these concepts. Psychological research has uncovered a multitude of systematic cognitive - ases associated with the intuitive decision process, especially concerning the f- mation of preferences and subjective probability judgments for uncertain events. These developments have elevated prescriptive decision theory to the status of an important discipline with increasingly strong practical ties - nowadays, even m- agers are concerned with decision trees, probability distributions and risk profiles. There is also a wide range of software available on the market to aid users with the use of the instruments. We would like to convince you, by help of the many pr- tical questions and case studies included with most chapters, that the material c- ered is not purely an academic diet but also of high practical nutritional value. The mindset suggested by the theory as an approach for decision problems will surely be of much use to you both in your private and professional life, even if you do not apply the presented methods of decision making support in every little - tail.
This exciting publication provides the reader with a theoretical and practical approach to adaptive decision making, based on an appreciation of cognitive styles, in a cross-cultural context. The aim of this Brief is to describe the role of thinking-through different options as part of the decision-making process. Since cognitive style influences decision behavior, the book will first examine thinking styles, which involve both cognitive and emotive elements, as habits or preferences that shape and empower one’s cognition and emotion. The information contained in this Brief will be a useful resource to both researchers studying decision making as well as to instructors in the higher education sector and to human resource development practitioners, especially those working in international, multi-cultural companies.