Erscheinungsdatum: 12/2009, Medium: Buch, Einband: Gebunden, Titel: The Economics of Imperfect Markets, Titelzusatz: The Effects of Market Imperfections on Economic Decision-Making, Redaktion: Calcagnini, Giorgio // Saltari, Enrico, Verlag: Physica Verlag // Physica, Sprache: Englisch, Schlagworte: International // Wirtschaft // Politik // Politikwissenschaft // Politologie // Fremde Länder // Internationales // Wirtschaftspolitik // Ökonomie // Wirtschaftswissenschaft // Recht // Staat // Verwaltung // Parteien // Internationale Wirtschaft // politische Ökonomie, Rubrik: Volkswirtschaft, Seiten: 232, Herkunft: NIEDERLANDE (NL), Reihe: Contributions to Economics, Informationen: Book, Gewicht: 509 gr, Verkäufer: averdo
The Economics of Imperfect Markets ab 160.49 € als Taschenbuch: The Effects of Market Imperfections on Economic Decision-Making. Auflage 2009. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Politik & Gesellschaft,
The Economics of Imperfect Markets ab 160.49 € als gebundene Ausgabe: The Effects of Market Imperfections on Economic Decision-Making. Auflage 2009. Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Politik & Gesellschaft,
Since the 1980s many developing countries have implemented macro-economic policy reforms to curb inflation, reduce fiscal deficits and control foreign debt. The policy instruments used, such as exchange rate adjustment, budget cuts, trade policy reforms, public expenditure reviews and privatisation, have different and sometimes opposite consequences for agricultural land use. During the same period awareness was growing that deteriorating soil quality could become a limiting factor to increase or even sustain agricultural production. As a result, food availability and even accessibility for large population groups in developing countries may be jeopardised in the near future. Recently, quantitative models have made useful contributions to understanding the impact of economic policy reforms on the sustainability of land use. They provide a consistent analytical framework to deal with complex issues such as the direct and indirect effects of economic, agricultural, environmental and population policies, the role of market imperfections in transmitting economic policy signals, and the interactions between soil quality, agricultural production and household economic decision making. Different types of models can be distinguished: bio economic models, focussing on the link between farm household decisions and the agricultural resource base, household and village models, examining the impact of the socio-economic environment on farm household decisions, and more aggregate models, analysing interactions between sectors and their implications for sustainable land use.
The main problem addressed by this work is how to model and combine bodies of knowledge (or evidence) while maintaining the representation of the unkowledge and of the conflict among the bodies. This is a problem with far-reaching applications in many knowledge segments, in particular for the fields of artificial intelligence, product design, decision making, knowledge engineering and uncertain probability. It must be kept in mind that knowledge based systems depend on algorithms able to relate the inputs of a system to a correct answer coming out of the knowledge-base, and both the inputs and the knowledge-base are subject to information imperfections caused by the unknowledge and the conflict. There are several formalism to deal with knowledge representation and combination, among them the Mathematical Theory of Evidence or Dempster-Shafer Theory. This work extends the Mathematical Theory of Evidence through the adoption of a new rule for the combination of evidence and a companion set of concepts. This extension solves the counter-intuitive problems illustrated in the original theory, extends its power of expression and allows the representation of uncertainty in the results. The representation of uncertainty implies the possibility of its use in decision-making and also makes explicit the relationship between the numeric results achieved and the results from classical probability theory.
Imperfections and Behavior in Economic Organizations analyzes the organization of economic decision making in a contemporary setting. The contributors focus on two important aspects of this analysis. First, they address the issue of imperfect or incomplete information and communication in economic organizations and consider imperfections arising from the interaction of the market organization with its environment. Second, the issue of cooperation in a competitive environment is thoroughly analyzed and alternative social trade organizations are designed to dissipate the allocation problems that arise in these situations.
Behavioral decision research offers a distinctive approach to understanding and improving decision making. It combines theory and method from multiple disciples (psychology, economics, statistics, decision theory, management science). It employs both empirical methods, to study how decisions are actually made, and analytical ones, to study how decisions should be made and how consequential imperfections are. This book brings together key publications, selected to represent the major topics and approaches used in the field. Put in one place, with integrating commentary, it shows the common elements in a research program that represents the scope of the field, while offering depth in each. Together, they provide a vision for what has become a burgeoning field.